Effects of yoga
continuation of the article
The method of measuring quality of life
In order to measure quality of life in hearing-impaired adolescents, hearing impaired youth-related quality of life inventory was used. It has three physical, emotional and social aspects.
The inventory includes 38 questions in three physical (8 questions), emotional (17 questions) and social (13 questions) aspects. The inventory is personally filled out by hearing- impaired adolescents. The required time to fill out the inventory is about 15 minutes. It measures the hearing-impaired-related quality of life in terms of three mentioned aspects and finally, a total score is calculated. The aspects are measured in the score range of 0-100 that the higher score represents the higher quality of life and also, indicates that the quality of life is less affected by hearing loss. Content validity of the inventory was approved and reported 0.79 by 14 experts. Its validity and reliability were measured in a study on a sample of 255 hearing-impaired students of the schools for normal students and the schools for exceptional students in Tehran Town. Internal correlation of it was reported 0.89 according to Cronbach’s alpha and internal correlations of three physical, emotional and social aspects were reported 0.77, 0.83 and 0.73, respectively (Saadati Borojeni, 2011). Descriptive statistics were used to classify the data and to calculate the central tendency (mean) and dispersion indicators (standard deviation) and inferential statistics were used to test the hypotheses and Mixed ANOVA test was used to investigate differences within the group. All calculations were performed using SPSS V.18 software. Significance level was considered p<5%.
Tablel The proposed training program for the experimental group
|Sun salutation crocodile pose cat pose spinal twist santolanasana balancing post||75||1st|
|1st week||Correct standing Crescent Moon Pose butterfly pose cattle pose cobra pose corpse pose||75||2nd|
|Tree pose mountain pose camel pose tiger pose head-to-knee pose locust pose||75||3rd|
|2nd week||Simple triangle forward bend full boat pose leg to side yoga pose simple twist pose||75||4th|
|Palm tree pose correct sitting prostration pose bridge pose leg reclining lunge meditation||75||5th|
|Hero pose cattle pose abdominal exercises fish pose standing stretch pose relaxation||75||6th|
|3rd week||Leg to side yoga pose cattle pose divine pose Based pose swastika pose Full yoga pose||80||7th|
|Hero pose supine pose garland pose contraction pose stealth pose fish pose||80||8th|
|Tree pose turtle pose eagle pose locust pose alligator pose Buddha pose||80||9th|
|4th week||Revolved side angle pose supine pose full boat pose lotus pose Hand-claws pose sacred fig pose||85||10th|
|Standing stretch pose plough pose shoulder stand forward bend yoga pose||90||11th|
|Simple triangle pose stand spread leg forward fold full boat pose leg to side yoga pose simple twist pose||90||12th|
|5th week||Hero pose cattle pose abdominal exercise spinal stretch relaxation||90||13th|
|T ree pose turtle pose eagle pose locust pose fish pose Buddha pose||90||14th|
|Palm tree pose correct sitting prostration pose bridge pose leg reclining pose meditation||90||15th|
|6th week||Angle pose supine pose full boat pose lotus pose hand claws pose sacred fig pose||90||16th|
|Standing stretch pose plough pose standing on shoulder forward bend yoga pose||90||17th|
|Leg stretching pose plough pose divine pose based pose Swastika pose full yoga pose||90||18th|
|7th week||Sun salutation crocodile pose cat pose spinal twist corpse pose||90||19th|
|Palm tree pose correct sitting standing on shoulders full boat pose lotus pose corpse pose||90||20th|
|Palm tree pose correct sitting prostration pose bridge pose leg reclining pose||85||21th|
|8th week||Leg stretching pose plough pose divine pose cobra pose corpse pose yoga pose||90||22th|
|Palm tree pose correct sitting prostration pose bridge pose leg reclining pose meditation||90||23th|
|Tree pose turtle pose eagle pose locust pose crocodile pose Buddha pose||90||24th|
The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that significance level of all the variable was greater than 5%. This shows the normal distribution of data (P>5%). Table2 shows demographic characteristics of the participants.
Table2 Demographic characteristics
|Level of hearing loss (db)||Experimental||50±16.5204||52.500||30-80||0.30||0.976|
Table3 The results of static balance test
|Post test mean±SD||Within|
Table4 The results of dynamic balance test
|Post test mean±SD||Within|
Table 5 The results of hearing-impaired adolescents’ quality of life test
|Post test mean±SD||Within|
|Quality of life (total)||Experimental||55.85±12.636||66.07±12.054||P=0.000||P=0.000||P=0.000|
|Quality of life (physical aspect)||Experimental||62.05±17.756||78.57±14.234||P=0.001||P=0.000||P=0.001|
|Quality of life|
|Quality of life (social aspect)||Experimental||46.70±23.749||65.31 ±27.011||P=0.012||P=0.000||P=0.001|
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Hatha Yoga exercises on static and dynamic balance and quality of life in hearing impaired adolescents. The results showed that yoga exercises significantly increase static and dynamic balance and quality of life. This result is consistent with the results of the study by Fernandez (2015), Majlesi (2014), Schmid (2015), Hoot (2011), Schmid (2010), Jannati (1388) on the impact of yoga on static balance but it is inconsistent with the study by Silver (2005) (18,9, 21, 22,23). This consistency may be due to the age mean of participants because in Silver’s study, the participants were between 26-28 years old and exercises were performed for 6 weeks.
Static balance is associated with muscle strength, on the other hand, the studies on animal models where there is the possibility of analysis of muscle fibers showed that doing stretching exercises in reduced muscles for a time a week is enough to reduce the muscle atrophy. Other researchers have reported that in normal muscles, doing stretching exercises for three times a week leads to the increase in the chain of some Sacromere and in the muscle fiber cross-sectional area. Since yoga is based on the stretch of muscles, it seems that doing yoga exercises can increase the muscle strength in general and specially, the muscles involved in maintaining the balance. It is also possible that doing meditation exercises in yoga improves the attention and focusing.
This result is consistent with the results of the studies by Fernandez (2015), Majlesi (2014), Schmid (2015), Johnson (2006), Zetergen (2011), Jannati (1388), Korila New (2012) (26,31,32,37,27,30,29). When the muscle loses its flexibility, length-tension relationship has changed and the change prevents the muscle to reach the peak of enough tension and is associated with weakness and loss of muscle contractions. Shortening of muscle can be caused by several factors such as lack of muscle stimulation, muscle weakness and aging. Lack of muscle stimulation causes changes in contractile proteins and mitochondria metabolism; thereby reducing the number of sarcomere and increasing deposition of connective tissue. All of these factors together cause muscle shortening and limit the muscle and joint stimulation. Some studies showed that stretching the muscle fiber increases the number of sarcomere. So, increasing muscle strength with stretching exercises may be attributed to the better interaction between actin and myosin filaments which increase the performance of muscle function.
Hatha Yoga exercises are effective in maintaining and improving the proper functioning of the musculoskeletal system, including joint motion, spinal flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, focus, muscle characteristics and bio-mechanical communication between the muscles, joints, glands, tissues and critical organs. On the other hand, Hatha yoga exercises deal with muscle weakness caused by the aging process and improve the ability to perform physical activities and to resist fatigue. Doing Hatha yoga exercises regularly with increased motion range of joints and developing the movement of spine, help the individual to maintain a stable body.
Also, the results of this study showed that after 8 weeks of yoga exercises, the quality of life in hearing-impaired adolescents was improved significantly. According to the data obtained from the hearing-impaired adolescent-related quality of life inventory, the yoga increased the quality of related to physical, emotional and social health. This result is consistent with the result of the study by Sing (2006) in terms of the effects of yoga on hearing-impaired adolescents’ quality of life related to physical and mental health. In terms of the effects of yoga on quality of life related to physical and mental health, it is consistent with the results of the studies by Ranjbar (2014), Frank (2015), Patil (2015), Schmid (2015), Schmid (2012), Thompson (2008), Gayle (2002). Improved physical and physical ability factors can be noted as this increase. This would boost morale, increase self-confidence and self-esteem and so, individual can do more daily activities and observing the progress of physical ability leads to increase the efforts and this increases quality of life related to physical aspect. According to WHO, health is the state of perfect health in terms of physical, mental and social aspects, so public health owes to the improvement of those aspects. Sing et al. (2006) have studied on the effects of yoga exercises on physical fitness and psychological variables of deaf and dumb children. The results showed that yoga had positive impact on physical fitness factors of experimental group. In present study, yoga exercises increase the quality of life related to emotional health. Hearing-impaired adolescents were motivated more to study and to do daily tasks
of life and also, they prevent discomfort and loss of self-confidence. In other words, yoga exercises improved their spirit and distracted their minds from their limitation and inabilities with mental exercises focusing the mind on positive events, in addition to increasing physical ability. Most studies showed that teamwork is an effective aid to social development and improved quality of life. According to the study by Ghavamin (2016), exercise therapy has positive effects on the hearing-impaired children’s quality of life and according to the study by Enayati (2013), corrective exercises have positive effects on social aspect of deaf adolescents’ quality of life.
Controllable limits: Demographic characteristics such as age, weight, and physiological abilities. None of the participants had a history of doing sport exercises. Number and duration of training sessions were under control. The same environment was used to do exercises and tests. Uncontrollable limitations: the intrinsic motivation of participants to do exercises completely and carefully, controlling the mood conditions of participants during or after training sessions.
It is suggested to perform a study on the effects of proposed exercise program on the rehabilitation of other disabled groups, deaf and hearing-impaired males in the older age groups, in the rehabilitation and sport centers for deaf disabled, especially people with balance problems.